Learning to windsurf is a relatively quick mission. Depending on your dedication and weather condition, yes, you may start windsurfing on single a weekend.
Ideally, you should book a few windsurfing lessons. Certified instructors will make sure you progress safely and steadily.
However, if you decide to learn how to windsurf by yourself, make sure you find a closed body of water or calm beach to kick off your first experiences.